Łódź gained city rights in 1423, but its real development started in the XIXth century. At that time, it was transformed from an agricultural town into an industrial city, mainly for textile purposes (hence it was called “Polish Manchester”). The city was famous for its multicultural and multi-religious character. In the 20th century, the city became the capital of the Polish film industry. Today Łódź is a vibrant academic, cultural and commercial center; it is also the official candidate for the EXPO 2022 exhibition. Łódź now is the third largest city in Poland. It is also a global phenomenon when it comes to architecture. Undamaged by war, it managed to preserve its original nineteenth-century urban layout. It is full of villas and factory palaces, workers’ houses and restored post-industrial complexes, Catholic churches, Orthodox churches, Protestant chapels and synagogues. The most prominent points of the city are, among others, Piotrkowska Street (Łódź’s most famous avenue), Manufaktura Shopping Centre (former Poznański’s factory) and the 19th-century factory complex of Księży Młyn. The city also consists of many modern complexes, such as New Łódź Centre, along with the new Fabryczna Train Station and renovated EC1 power station, shopping centers such as Galeria Łódzka, Port Łódź and Sukcesja as well as modern football stadiums.